Sinus arrhythmia of the heart – what is it? What are the main causes and symptoms of the disease? Methods of diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation.
The rhythm of the heartbeats can be disturbed, and the sequence of the work of the heart departments remains correct. This process was called sinus arrhythmia. The condition does not necessarily indicate the pathologies of the cardiovascular system. The disease can be caused by the physiology of a person – after playing sports, the transferred stress or food intake affects the heart activity. In this case, disturbances in the conduction of impulses can pass unnoticed, without obvious symptoms and signs.
Description of pathology
This is a condition in which the heart muscle of a person contracts with an irregular rhythm. There are several types of such violations, they are distinguished by the level of blockage in the path of impulse transmission.
With sinus arrhythmia, initial disturbances occur due to changes in the functioning of the sinus node. This department converts the impulses and ensures the contraction of the ventricles and atria at a certain rate. Such an indicator of the rhythm varies and depends on the state of the person – dormancy (60-80 beats per minute) or physical activity at the moment of counting the pulse.
The receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system give the command to the sinus-atrial node about the change in rhythmicity. Pathological processes or blockage in the path of the pulse causes a state of excitation of the cardiac muscle, even in a calm position.
Studies have shown that the heart of women in the state of rest beats somewhat more often than the male. But infants are superior to all indicators. Their heartbeats can reach 180 beats per minute, and this is considered the norm.
So, what is this – an arrhythmia? Indicators of a decreased or, conversely, increased heart rate at a time when a person is in a relaxed and calm state. The normal heart rate (heart rate) is 60-80 beats per minute. It is understood that the output of the rhythm of heartbeat pulsations beyond these limits causes the described pathology state.
Types and stages of the disease
The gaps between the contractions of the heart have a time frame that can be raised or lowered. Under certain circumstances, such a condition will be considered the norm, and in others – a pathology with severe tolerance. Therefore, there is a division into subspecies:
Physiological or respiratory variety of pathology
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart can both increase and slow down. Increase in rhythmicity occurs on inspiration, and with expiration, respectively, decrease. According to statistics, in teenagers and children this condition occurs more often and is not considered a deviation from the norm. As you grow up, the indicator comes back to normal.
A respiratory variety of disorders is observed in such pathologies:
- Disorders in the work of the brain;
- Vegetovascular dystonia;
- Postinfection period.
Bradycardia is characterized by a decreased heart rate – less than 60 beats / min. It can be conditioned by the normal physiological state of the human body. In pregnancy, in the last trimester, and in people in sleep, whose life is associated with persistent physical exertion, this frequency of heart beats is considered normal.
The lack of restoration of the heart rate in this category of people can cause suspicion of the presence of atrioventricular blockade (heart rate slowed even after physical exertion). Therefore, additional tests are prescribed to exclude the diagnosis.
Diseases of a viral nature, cardiosclerosis, intracranial pressure, long-term fasting, drug overdose and poisoning can also cause a decrease in heart rate.
Tachycardia is characterized by an increased contraction of the heart muscle – more than 80 beats / min. An increase in the body temperature regime, stresses against the background of emotional outbursts can cause a moderate tachycardia of 90-120 beats / min. When diagnosing diseases such as heart disease, cardiomyopathy, hypertension, ischemic disease and others, contractions can reach 150-160 beats / min.
Due to the receipt of additional signals, a rhythmic failure occurs (a feeling of fading or cardiac arrest). This condition occurs when smoking is abused, coffee drinks or a lack of potassium in the body. Extrasystoles of a regular nature carry the danger of cerebral hemorrhage, circulatory disorders of the renal and coronary vessels.
The frequency of cardiac contractions of an elevated nature can vary in very different intervals, therefore a subdivision was created at the stage of pathology development:
- An easy stage of rhythm disturbance does not bring any discomfort to a person’s life. Most often, a slight increase in heart rate is observed in people in old age or is the physiological norm of the organism in a particular period of time.
- The first degree (respiratory) – proceeds asymptomatically, is observed in children and adolescents against a background of growth, as well as hormonal adjustment.
- The second degree of disturbance of the parameters of the rhythm is characterized by a general weakness of the body, difficulty breathing. Often accompanied with a cardiovascular disease.
- The third degree of development of pathology is caused by pronounced symptoms and occurrence of ciliary palpitation (up to 600 beats / min). Severe sinus arrhythmia should be performed under the full control of the cardiologist, in compliance with all of its recommendations.
Causes of pathology
Sinus arrhythmia of the heart occurs for the following reasons:
The main disease, in which the normal conduct of impulses to the heart muscle is impossible, is ischemic disease. As a result, an insufficient supply of oxygen develops hypoxia and pronounced sinus arrhythmia, accompanied by painful sensations behind the sternum.
Myocardial infarction also implies hypoxia with the death of a tissue site and subsequent scarring. Cardiomyopathy is characterized by changes in the structure and tachycardia.
Different vices, both congenital and acquired, heart failure with impaired blood pumping function become the reasons for sinus arrhythmia.
Violations of the neurogenic nature, sympathetic and parasympathetic departments of the central nervous system are in an uncoordinated state. The sinus node converts impulses not regularly, as a result, there is a violation with abbreviations.
Diseases of internal organs
Bronchitis and asthma are accompanied by hypoxic dysfunction, oxygen is little, accordingly, the heart rhythm is uneven.
Disturbances in the work of the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, manifestations of diabetes mellitus are capable of provoking abnormal contractions.
The use of narcotic drugs, alcoholic beverages and smoking are irreversible for the cardiovascular system. Diseases caused by infections, low hemoglobin (anemia) – all these factors can affect the heart rate and the supply of impulses.
In anticipation of the birth of a child, a woman may have sinusoidal tachycardia due to an increase in the volume of blood and increased stress on the internal organs, but after the birth, all the indices are normalized.
Symptoms and signs of pathology
The patient’s susceptibility to symptoms plays an important role. Some people do not notice any signs of disturbance of the rhythm, only the ECG learns of an improper delivery of impulses with a decreased or increased heart rate.
Others, on the contrary, feel the fading or uneven contraction of the heart muscle. Such phenomena can be accompanied by the following signs:
- Excessive sweating;
- Nasolabial triangle acquires a bluish tinge;
- Skin of the face, brushes can blush;
- Lack of oxygen;
- Feelings of anxiety, anxiety;
- Trembling limbs;
- Pain syndrome behind the chest.
Hypoxia and severe sinus arrhythmia lead to impairment in the circulation of the brain. This condition can be accompanied by dizziness and loss of consciousness.
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Diagnosis of pathologies with ECG
What is an ECG, and how does this study help in diagnosing? ECG (electrocardiography) is the most accessible, simple and informative tool for obtaining cardiac data. The device can be used in any conditions: a hospital ward, a home environment or an ambulance.
An electrocardiogram shows the dynamics of the heart for a certain period and the electrical impulses that give them. To assess the state was complete and displayed the whole spectrum of the heart muscle, the electrodes (suction plates) are attached to the chest, ankles and wrists. The charge of energy is transferred to the ECG apparatus, after which it is transformed into 12 graphs, which show the work of a single heart site.
ECG examination takes about 7-10 minutes, it is completely painless and safe, does not cause allergic reactions.
Cardiologist, according to the cardiogram, can indicate a diagnosis of mild or severe sinus arrhythmia, to determine the extent of the lesion. The standard derivations of the teeth are compared, the graphic image is deciphered and conclusions are drawn on the diagnosis, followed by the determination and appointment of a general course of treatment with rehabilitation.
- With sinus arrhythmia, depending on whether the bradycardia or tachycardia, the R-interval of the cardiac pulse goes to increase or, accordingly, decrease.
- The tooth-point P always points to the rhythm of the atrium. Amplitude, direction and form cause the excitement of these branches.
- QRS-component can look abberant, if there is a combination with blockade of the legs of the bundle of His. At this heart rate is 70-100 beats per minute. The change in this indicator indicates the presence of pathology in the delivery of a cardiac pulse.
- The temporary retraction of the RR pulse is more than 15 fractions of a second, the development is abrupt. The indicator that the arrhythmia is sinusoidal.
A blood test is also required to determine the electrolyte composition. In addition to the ECG, with blurred indications and after collecting anamnesis, the doctor can prescribe an ultrasound of the heart, hormonal analyzes and other examinations to obtain a complete clinical picture.
Treatment and rehabilitation
Severe sinus arrhythmia is eliminated by treatment from the underlying disease. Sometimes this happens by surgery, installing a pacemaker. Basically, conservative therapy with beta-blockers, inhibitors, various specific drugs depending on the underlying disease is used.
With short-term failures of the pace of the heart muscle and their indicators, which are caused by a stressful situation, you can take medications.
Of great importance is the way of life that leads the patient. To normalize the performance of the heart rate, you will need:
- Complete refusal to smoke;
- Restrictions in the consumption of alcohol products;
- A full 8-hour sleep;
- Moderate physical activity;
- Balanced diet;
- Decrease in the consumption of caffeinated beverages;
- Consumption of salt in limited quantities.
Frequent cause of abnormalities of the rhythm are excessive physical activity, pregnancy, adolescence of the child. In such cases, the heartbeat is normalized independently without assistance.
From the first month of pregnancy, the woman has a rapid contraction of the heart muscle. In most cases, this is not a violation of rhythm and is caused by increased blood circulation and restructuring of the body. This state does not require special attention and passes on its own after the birth.
What is the risk of arrhythmia in the period of gestation? There are situations when pronounced sinus arrhythmia speaks of pathological processes taking place in the body of a woman. If the heart palpitations are accompanied by the following conditions, then it is necessary to undergo additional tests to identify the disease:
- Sympathetic nervous system exceeds the norm of activity (hypertension, tachycardia, dilated pupils);
- Emotional instability;
- Disorders of electrolyte balance in toxicosis;
- Lowered hemoglobin – anemia;
- Disorders in the functioning of the thyroid gland, endocrine system.
Diseases of a chronic nature can also go into the stage of exacerbation and cause a heart palpitations not only of the described species, but also of the ciliary, which is more dangerous for a woman who has a child.
Therefore, preventive measures will not be superfluous in pregnancy:
- Timely registration with a perinatal physician;
- Rational nutrition with a variety of foods, not the same type;
- Reception of vitamin complexes and microelements;
- Additional surveys and analysis;
- Limiting stressful situations, trying to keep the calm psycho-emotional background as much as possible, so that heart pulses are fed in the right sequence with a suitable amplitude.
These simple measures with a preventative bias can reduce the risk of the pathology of the rhythm of contraction of the heart muscle and diagnose complications already in the early period of pregnancy, which will help to keep health both for mom and baby.
Are they taking the army with such a diagnosis?
Diseases of the cardiovascular nature are often the reason for which they are exempt from military service. Severe sinus arrhythmia occurs with different diseases and there are different types. Therefore, before making a decision on the suitability of a young person for drill, a thorough examination will be necessary.
Pathologies, in which there is an uneven reduction:
- Paroxysmal tachycardia;
- Adms-Stokes-Morgani disease;
- Weakened sinus node;
- Disturbance of impulse conductivity.
Some heart diseases contain the syndrome of rapid contraction, as an important symptom:
- Heart failure;
- Mitral valve prolapse;
- Heart disease.
These cardiac pathologies will become limitations for people who are liable for military service, as the army compels to comply with strict regulations and existing health problems can complicate the course of the disease.
It can be concluded that a violation of the rhythm of the heart muscle is a pathology, which in itself is not a motivating factor for refusing to drill. But if it occurs as a symptom of a serious cardiovascular disease, the commission of doctors issues its verdict that a person is unfit to serve in the army.
Failures in the delivery of impulses, increase and decrease in the intervals between contractions do not always indicate the presence of the disease. But frequent repetitions of attacks with a long time interval are an occasion for visiting a cardiologist and conducting an examination with the help of an ECG.